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Research From Around the Industry and Across the World

Welcome to Vinson & Elkins’ U.S. State Hydraulic Fracturing Resources. Use the links below to find current or proposed state regulations, statutes, and other documents relevant to unconventional oil and gas activities in each state. These do not represent all regulations or statutes that cover oil and gas exploration and development, but merely some resources particularly useful when contemplating unconventional oil and gas activities in that state.

Eagle Ford Shale investment blog – A blog dedicated to investment opportunities in the Eagle Ford Shale

The Eagle Ford Shale Play  – Eagle Ford News, Maps, Blog, Developments

FuelFix  – a daily source for news and analysis on the energy business anchored by business reporters at the Houston Chronicle and other Hearst newspapers.

Go Haynesville Shale   – “All things pertaining to leasing, drilling, production and mineral rights”

Haynesville Play: The Haynesville Shale Resource  – “News About Oil and Natural Gas From Shale”

Reductive weathering of black shale and release of barium during hydraulic fracturing, prepared by Assistant Professor Devon Renock, Research Scientist Josh Landis and Professor Mukul Sharma from the Department of Earth Sciences, Dartmouth College, Applied Geochemistry, Volume 65, February 2016, Pages 73–86.

Individual Well Costs from Proposed Rule Changes to Oil and Natural Gas Operations on BLM Lands: Comments and a Monte Carlo Specification, prepared by Russell R. Evans, Ph. D. and Jacob Dearmon, Ph. D., respectively, Executive Director of the Steven C. Agee Economic Research and Policy Institute and Associate Professor of Economics in the Meinders School of Business, Oklahoma City University, for Devon Energy. The study was released to the public on April 2, 2013.

An Analysis of the Economic Potential for Shale Formations in Ohio, prepared by faculty and staff from Cleveland State University, Ohio State University, and Marietta College, and sponsored by the Ohio Shale Coalition, April 2012

Carnegie-Mellon Marcellus Greenhouse Gas Study: Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas, by Jiang et al., Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (July-September 2011)

Cornell University Study: Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations, Howarth et al., Climatic Change, March 13, 2011

Duke University Study: Noble Gases Identify the Mechanisms of Fugitive Gas Contamination in Drinking-Water Wells Overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales, Thomas H. Darrah, Avner Vengosh, Robert B. Jackson, Nathaniel R. Warner and Robert J. Poreda, PNAS Early Edition, September 2014,

Duke University Study: Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing, Osborn et al., PNAS Early Edition, May 2011,

Duke University Study: Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania. Nathanial R. Warner, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas H. Darrah, Stephen G. Osborn, Adrian Down, Kaiguang Zhao, Alissa White, and Avner Vengosh, May 2012

Duke University Study: Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction. Robert B. Jackson, Avner Vengosh, Thomas H. Darrah, Nathaniel R. Warner, Adrian Down, Robert J. Poreda, Stephen G. Osborn, Kaiguang Zhao, and Jonathan D. Karr, June 2013

Economic Impact of the Eagle Ford Shale, prepared by The University of Texas at San Antonio Institute for Economic Development’s Center for Community and Business Research, May 2012

Environmental Impacts During Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling: Causes, Impacts, and Remedies , conducted by researchers at the University of Wyoming, Pennsylvania State University, and the State University of New York at Buffalo, May 15, 2012

Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources: Separating the Frack from the Fiction, prepared by the Pacific Institute, June 2012

Legal Implications of Marcellus Shale: A Video Overview — Professor Ross Pifer, director of the Agricultural Law Research and Resource Center and of the new Rural Economic Development Clinic, summarizes the legal implications of Marcellus Shale development, October 24, 2010

The Penn State Study: The Impact of Marcellus Gas Drilling On Rural Drinking Water Supplies, conducted by Pennsylvania State University and funded by the Center for Rural Pennsyvlania; revised report, Nov. 22, 2011

The U.S. has seen an explosion of shale development thanks to its large estimate of technically recoverable resources and advanced technological experience. Below are various useful federal and state resources that are updated regularly. In addition, review Vinson & Elkins’ Traditional Energy publications for up-to-date analyses on new federal and state developments and the following pages for continuously updated information:

Bureau of Land Management

Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement / Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

  • Programmatic Environmental Assessment of the Use of Well Stimulation Treatments on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf, May 2016

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

U.S. Coast Guard

U.S. Department of Energy



U.S. Geological Survey

General Accounting Office

National Research Council of the National Academies

  • Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies, June 15, 2012

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

America’s Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) promotes the economic, environmental and national security benefits of greater use of domestic natural gas, and represents 30 of North America’s largest independent natural gas exploration and production companies and the leading developers of the shale plays.

American Gas Association (AGA), founded in 1918, represents more than 200 local energy companies that deliver natural gas throughout the United States.

American Petroleum Institute (API) is the only national trade association that represents all aspects of America’s oil and natural gas industry.

Energy In Depth (EID) launched by the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) in 2009, is a research, education and public outreach campaign focused on getting the facts out about the promise and potential of responsibly developing America’s onshore energy resource base.

Frac Focus, the national hydraulic fracturing chemical registry website, is a joint project of the Ground Water Protection Council and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission.

Fracking Beyond the Law, August 13, 2014 

Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA) is a national trade association that has represented independent oil and natural gas producers for three-quarters of a century.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond.

The Marcellus Shale Coalition (MSC) is an organization committed to the responsible development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale geological formation and the enhancement of the region’s economy that can be realized by this clean-burning energy source.

The National Association of Royalty Owners (NARO) encourages and promotes exploration and production of minerals in the United States while preserving, protecting, advancing, and representing the interests and rights of mineral and royalty owners through education, advocacy and assistance to our members, to NARO chapter organizations, to government bodies and to the public.

The Pennsylvania Landowners’ Association (PLA) is committed to protecting property rights and land use while encouraging responsible environmental stewardship.