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False Claims Act Statistics, News & Analysis

Escobar The Sequel? — Perhaps Coming Soon to SCOTUS

On April 16, 2018, the Supreme Court called for the views of the Solicitor General (or “CVSG”) as to whether it should review the Ninth Circuit’s decision in Gilead Sciences, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Campie (that we at LLB believe was wrongly decided and have covered previously). The CVSG may indicate the Court’s willingness to provide much-needed clarification to Escobar’s materiality standard.

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Impact of First Circuit's 2015 Gadbois' Decision on First-to-File Bar Limited by District Court on Remand

In a post right before the holidays, we noted that the district court in United States ex rel. Estate of Gadbois v. PharMerica Corp. interpreted the FCA’s government action bar as a perpetual bar to all claims brought by a relator in a qui tam action in which the government has intervened and settled, even when the government did not intervene in or settle all of the claims. No. 10-cv-471, 2017 WL 5466659 (D.R.I. Nov. 13, 2017). But there is more to the district court’s decision than the government action bar. In its government action bar analysis, the district court made a fairly technical civil procedure ruling that, if followed by other courts, should limit the ability of relators to use the First Circuit’s previous Gadbois decision to evade the FCA’s first-to-file bar and statute of limitations.

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Time to Take Your Medicine: Fifth Circuit Decision Diagnoses Problems with Causation Arguments

Last month, we covered United States ex rel. King v. Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on the issue of the FCA’s public disclosure bar pre-Affordable Care Act. Today, we explore another aspect of that same opinion — the causation requirements necessary to sustain a fraudulent inducement FCA claim. The Fifth Circuit delivered relators a dose of bitter medicine in its opinion, affirming the district court’s grant of summary judgment to the defendant pharmaceutical company on the grounds that relators failed to demonstrate a causal link between the alleged false statements and any actual false claims.

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Litigation Update: Ninth Circuit Stays Mandate to allow Gilead to Seek Cert on Key Post-Escobar Issues

We reported previously on yet another implied certification case raising significant questions about materiality and falsity in the post-Escobar world, United States ex. rel. Campie v. Gilead Sciences, Inc., in which the Ninth Circuit reversed the district court’s dismissal of the case.

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Open Season for FCA Relators? Ninth Circuit Finds Falsity in Gilead Case Despite Possible Discrepancy with Sister Court

We’re back with our second installment on the Ninth Circuit’s decision in United States ex. rel. Campie v. Gilead Sciences, Inc., No. 15-16380, 2017 WL 2884047 (9th Cir. July 7, 2017). If Gilead’s materiality ruling left you scratching your head, then best take a seat now, because the falsity analysis is even more puzzling. But peel back the problematic legal analysis, and what seems to have driven the Ninth Circuit to let this case proceed past the pleadings is that relators alleged specific examples of the defendant having misled the government about the product it was selling. Despite our other criticisms of this opinion, Gilead’s emphasis on alleged specific misrepresentations is a saving grace because it is consistent with Escobar’s two-part implied certification test, which requires (1) a specific representation that (2) is made a misleading half-truth by omission.

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Made in China: Ninth Circuit Departs from Escobar and Rules Government’s Continued Payment of Claims Despite Knowledge of Chinese Origin of Drugs Not Enough to Defeat Materiality on the Pleadings

Since Escobar, FCA defendants have aggressively litigated materiality. They have asked courts to define when materiality can be defeated by a showing that the government knew of an alleged problem but paid anyway, which Escobar called “strong evidence” of immateriality. The Ninth Circuit in United States ex. rel. Campie v. Gilead Sciences, Inc. issued an opinion on July 7 that might make it more difficult for defendants in that circuit to obtain dismissal at the pleadings stage based on this “government knowledge” challenge to materiality. No. 15-16380, 2017 WL 2884047 (9th Cir. July 7, 2017). Fortunately, Gilead’s materiality ruling can likely be limited to the facts before the Court in that case, where the scope and timing of the government’s knowledge was unclear on the pleadings.

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